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DMZ The Land of Peace and Life

Panmunjeom

Reaching out as one 

North and South facing

触手可及却相视而立的南与北

  

 

Once a unity, but now an opposing coexistence - a place exists where we stare at each other in silence, where holding hands and embracing one another becomes a distant/ far reaching possibility, the hope to become ‘one’ is lost in our hearts, guarded by unforeseen barriers.

曾经是我们,但现在成为你和我,互相在沉默中相望的地方。只要迈出一步,就可以互相握手相拥···,但还是被相隔在墙壁之外,再一次让我们的梦想暂时珍藏在心灵深处。

 

 

<Panmunjeom> Photo by Paju City

<Panmunjeom> Photo by Paju City

 

 

 

 

Panmunjeom (A term derived from the Korean War) 

6.25战争起的新名字,板门店

 

 

Above the Military Demarcation Line, which divides the North and South, is a place where North and South Korea can face each other without walls or barbed-wire fences. The ceasefire agreement was signed at the historical location of Panmunjeomon, on the 27th of July, 1953, now referred to as the DMZ. Panmunjeomon is located 62 km North-West of Seoul, 212 km South of Pyongyang, and 10 km from Kaesong. Panmunjeom is located in South Korea’s administrative district, Jinseo-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do, but in North Korea it is situated in Panmun gun, Kaesong-si, North Korea’s administrative district.

 

在隔断南与北的军事分界线上,有一个没有遮住视野的墙壁或铁栅栏的妨碍、南北韩可以面对面的唯一的场所。1953727日签署6.25战争停战协定之后,诞生今天的DMZ的历史性场所-板门店。板门店位于离首尔西北方向62公里、平壤向南212公里以及开城10公里位置。根据韩国的行政区域属于京畿道坡州市津西面,而以北韩的行政区域是开城市板门郡板门店。

 

The name Panmunjeom derives from the term Nulmunli, meaning, ‘wooden door’. Its name comes from a story where a King, in years previously, crossed over a river via a bridge, which was made almost immediately, by using an existing wooden door. Nulmunli, a secluded village near the Sacheon riverbank, is now referred to as Panmunjeom. After ceasefire negotiations moved from Kaesong to Nulmunli on 25 October 1951, Panmunjeom became a global focus on news channels around the world. 

 

板门店的原名是‘NULMUNLEE’。古代某位国王踏过用板门在现场临时做的板门桥过河,由此过河的村庄起名为NULMUNLEE。作为砂川河畔清闲的村庄,NULMUNLEE从何时起以板门店代替原名,成为世界新闻的焦点。1951710日开始,自开城市开始的休战会谈,到1025日迁到NULMUNLEE

 

 

  • <July 27th, 1953,Image of reporters outside the ceasefire meeting venue>Photo by NAK

    <July 27th, 1953,Image of reporters outside the ceasefire meeting venue>Photo by NAK

  • <July 27th, 1953, Representatives of both sides lining MDL on the map during the ceasefire agreement at Panmunjeom>Photo by NAK

    <July 27th, 1953,Representatives of both sides lining MDL on the map during the ceasefire agreement at Panmunjeom>Photo by NAK

 

 

Why was the name Nulmunli changed to Panmunjeom? When ceasefire negotiations began at Nulmunli, its name was required in Chinese characters for the Communist, Chinese army. The location of the ceasefire negotiations was 1 km from the present-day North Panmunjeom, and there were 4 thatched-roof houses; 2 temporary buildings (used for meetings) and 3 barracks. On location was also a small shop and tavern. ‘Nulmunli’, in Chinese characters is written as ‘Panmun’(板門). When you add the ending letters ‘jeom’(店), the meaning changes to ‘a small shop’, and so forming the word ‘Panmunjeom’.  

那么,NULMUNLEE怎么会以板门店之名重生呢?在NULMUNLEE开始休战会谈时,为了中共军方需要用汉语标记NULMUNLEE。进行休战会谈的场所位于现在的板门店北侧1公里处,由4栋草屋和作为会场的2栋临时建筑物以及3栋营房组成。另外还有兼做酒吧的小规模店铺。NULMUN的汉语标记是板门。加上意味着小店铺的,成为板门店,即由此诞生了板门店这一地名。 

 

 

 

 

An additional/ alternative name for ‘Panmunjeom’, JSA   

板门店的另一个名字,共同警备区(JSA

 

The official name for Panmunjeom, is Joint Security Area (JSA), which became widely recognized amongst the general public after the 2000 Korean film <JSA> directed by Chan-Wook Park. Panmunjeom is located inside of the DMZ, setting its primary zone at 800 meters East-West and 400 meters North-South of MDL, jointly guarded by the UN forces and North Korean army. If the name ‘Panmunjeom’ derives from the native community Nulmunli, which existed before the ceasefire agreement, JSA is an area artificially created on MDL to ensure safety whilst the Military Armistice Commission (MAC)is held.

板门店的正式名称是共同警备区(Joint Security AreaJSA),通过朴赞郁导演的2000年电影作品<共同警备区JSA>普及到普通市民。板门店是位于停战协定上的非武装地带(DMZ),并在军事分界线上设定东西800m、南北400m的正方形地区,由联合国军与北韩军共同警备的共同警备区。如果说板门店是停战协定以前存在的NULMUNLEE这一自然部落由来的地名,那么共同警备区是停战协定之后进行军事停战委员会会议时,为了确保安全,在军事分界线上人为地设定的区域。 

 

 

<ROK military forces and North Korean army at JSA> Photo by Paju city

<ROK military forces and North Korean army at JSA> Photo by Paju city

 

 

In pre-existing times, both sides intersected the MDL within JSA, but it is no longer possible since the ax-brutality incident on August 18th, 1976, which resulted in a divided guardianship. The Panmunjeom area was protected by the United Nations Command beforehand, but since October 2004, ROK military forces have been in charge.

 

  

 

 

Breaking away from Panmunjeom to Unity and harmony as ‘one’ 

 

 

Panmunjeom is a symbolic place with a history focused on the tense relationship between North and South Korea. It was both the North and South’s place for political propaganda and military collision. It was a place where a crisis was fostered by incidents such as ax-brutality. In the past, there were instances where North Korean residents’ and foreigners’ from Communist nations abandoned Panmunjeom; however, on September 20th, 1971, Panmunjeom became a point of communication between North and South Korea, where the Red Cross preliminary conference was held. Panmunjeom is now regarded as a place of contact for North and South Korea to engage in negotiations and hold conferences. It is also a point of entry and exit for people visiting the North or South. 

板门店是展现南北韩对决与紧张关系的象征性场所。冷战时期的板门店是南北的政治宣传空间,还引发过斧头事件等军事冲突危机。过去通过板门店,偶尔发生北韩居民或共产国家外国人归顺的事例。但是于1971920日举行的南北红十字预备会谈为契机,板门店开始转变为南北沟通场所。板门店不知何时开始成为南北韩的接触与会谈场所,并成为他们来往南北的过境地点。

 

 

  • <January 24th, 1975, the 7th North-South Red Cross Conference>Photo by NAK

    <January 24th, 1975, the 7th North-South Red Cross Conference>Photo by NAK

  • <October 2nd, 2008, North and South military talks >Photo by Ministry of Unification

    <October 2nd, 2008, North and South military talks >Photo by Ministry of Unification

 

 

The late President Chung Ju-yung of the Hyundai Group visited North Korea with a herd of cattle. This incident is rumored to have been the primary reason of opening Panmunjeom to civilians. On June 16th, 1998, a French critic called Sorman praised Chung Ju-yung for his generous efforts in bringing forth 500 cows across the Panmunjeom MDL barrier. Sorman expressed it as “the last avant-garde art of the 20th century”. After the year 2000, an inter-Korean summit was held, and topics of reconciliation and cooperation were discussed. This was hosted in hope of future contact between the North and the South on location in Panmunjeom.

板门店的大门敞开的最大事件是郑周永当时现代集团名誉会长的牛群外交。1998616日,他赶着500头牛群,穿过板门店军事分界线的场面,法国文化批评家Guy Sorman表现为‘20世纪最后的前卫艺术并极力赞美。2000年南北首脑会谈之后,形成了和解与合作氛围,通过板门店的接触与会谈也频繁。

 

Panmunjeom, having managed the longest ceasefire in world history, did not experience a smooth transition. According to national policy, Panmunjeom was visited by either many people or none at all. With polarizing ideologies in coexistence, many people shared unsettling emotions, yet some remained positively hopeful. Soldiers’ of North and South Korea continue to guard their posts in silence while standing side by side. It is almost impossible to predict future progress between the opposing sides; however, that day will draw closer with high hopes and strong faith. 

但是,管理世界历史上最长休战,板门店的历史也并不是始终平坦。随着国家政策,人们的脚步也很长时间一度绝迹。看着分裂与对话这一相反概念共存的空间,我们时而在紧张中战栗,时而在希望中微笑。今天在那里,南北军人可能还在静静地对视着。迈出一步靠近对方需要多少时间,没有人知晓。但是,就如我们恳切的愿望,这个日子会很快来临。

 

 

  

 

Browsing around Panmunjeom

 

漫步板门店 

  

■ North and South Joint Area
  南北共同地区

  

● A ceasefire meeting venue
● 停战会场

There are seven one-story barracks in a line from East-West of JSA. Among them is the center barrack, Panmunjeom’s place of negotiation and ‘the Military Armistice Commission (MAC)’ meeting room (the heart of ceasefire agreement). To the left of this location is the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) meeting room. T2 is also known as the MAC’s conference room, a tourist attraction where visitors and tourists from the North and South convene. Within this conference room, visitors from the North and South can cross over into the two countries. Visitors’ are under constant guidance and supervision, and opposite entrances are temporarily inaccessible. 

共同警备区中心区以东西方向一字排列7栋单层半圆形营房。其中在中间的就是停战协定的核心区的板门店会谈场所军事停战委员会会议室,其左侧是中立国监督委员会会议室。被称为T2的军事停战会场是南与北的访客与游客经常访问的观光名所。在会场内,南韩游客可以走到北韩,而北韩游客可以走到南韩。南北双方的一方有游客访问时,暂时封闭反侧进出口,在警备员的保护警戒下进行观光。

 

● Bridge of No Return 
● 不归桥

‘Bridge of No Return’ is located above the Sacheon River behind the side of peace house. MDL intersects the center of this bridge where captives of either side were repatriated. The name ‘Bridge of No Return’ was coined, as no one could return once they had crossed the boundary. This bridge was used as an access point from Kaesong to JSA, but it’s been a non thoroughfare zone since the ax-brutality incident on August 18th, 1976. 

不归桥位于我方和平之家后面砂川江上。军事分界线横跨这条桥中间,签署停战协定之后交换俘虏时,双方俘虏通过这条桥遣送到对方,而因为只要跨过这条桥,任何人都无法再回来,所以被称为不归桥(Bridge of No Return)。该桥曾作为从开城进出共同警备区而使用,但于1976818日发生斧头事件之后被禁止通行。

 

 

■ Southern region
 我方地区

  

● House of freedom
● 自由之家

The house of freedom looks like a shield-shaped kite which signifies our thoughts and dreams of unification. The curves of both sides of the building form a conjoined covering of two hands, which also symbolizes unity. The house of freedom today is a four-story building, which was newly constructed in 1998. There is a lobby; pressroom and amenities on the first floor; a waiting room; office and conference room (to be used for postal services) on the second floor - as well as a North-South liaison office, a North-South Red Cross liaison office; and a council chamber (to be used as a visiting room for separated families). On the top floor, an observatory and multipurpose room are located. This building was planned for the purpose of active exchange between North and South Korea.

我方建筑物的自由之家,呈现风筝盾模样来表现出向北韩传达统一心愿的愿望。建筑物两面的曲线也为了表现出统一愿望,呈现用双手围绕的面貌。现在的自由之家是1998年新建的4层建筑物,一层是大厅·记者室·便利设施;二层是等候室·办公室·会议室(今后用作邮件交换所等);三层是南北联络事务所·南北红十字联络事务所·大会议室(今后用作离散家属会面场等);四层是展望台与多用途空间等,针对南北交流激活而设计,承担着联络业务。

 

● The house of peace
● 和平之家

The building was specifically designed to expand South Korea’s meeting facilities in preparation for negotiations between the North and South in Panmunjeom in 1989. In 1992, a North-South hot line was installed, but it was moved to the house of freedom after its completion in 1998. The house of peace is a three-story stone building with a total floor space of 600 pyeong (or about 2,000m2). A VIP room and pressroom are located on the bottom floor; a conference hall on the second floor; and a banquet hall on the third floor, which is used to accommodate delegates, or host gatherings after meetings. 

这是1989年在板门店考虑活跃的南北对话,为了扩大我方会谈设施而建立的建筑物。1992年设置南北联络事务所(南韩)与直拨电话,但随着1998年竣工自由之家而迁移过去。和平之家是建筑面积600坪的三层石造建筑物,一层是贵宾室与记者室;二层是会场;三层为宴会室,用作会谈之后代表团的餐饮或聚会场所。

 

  

■ Northern region
  北韩地区

 

● Panmungak
● 板门阁

Panmungak is a building that represents the North side within Panmunjeom. The North did not open Panmunjeom to the public for 12 consecutive years after the conclusion of the ceasefire agreement. It was accessible to the public only in 1964, when Yookgakjung was built, which is now called ‘Panmungak’. Yookgakjung was then destroyed in 1969 and Panmungak was newly constructed. Panmungak seemed like a magnificent stone building when seen from the South - one of its features is the narrow width of its inner space. In 1994, North Korea started the pivot construction, expanding its width, converting it into a three-story building. The construction ended in December. 

板门阁是在板门店象征北韩的代表性建筑物。北韩在签署停战协定之后12年期间,没有向普通市民公开板门店,而于1964年开始公开之后,在现在的板门阁位置建立了六角亭。此后在1969年,拆除六角亭,新建板门阁,而板门阁在南侧看时显得是雄伟的石造建筑物,但建筑物内的宽度很窄。所以,北韩于1994年开始增建板门阁并于12月完工,其建筑物为3层高,建筑物宽度也扩张。

 

● Tongilgak
● 统一阁

Tongilgak was built by the North as an additional meeting facility in Panmunjeom in 1985. Symmetrical to the South’s house of peace, the total floor space of this building is 460 pyeong (or about 1,500 m2), with one basement level and one ground level. Since May 1992, it has been used by the North as a liaison office for major negotiations. At the time, 5-6 personnel resided at the office carrying out their liaison work with the South through two-direct portals. Tongilgak is not easily spotted, as its location is 100 meters North-West of Panmungak. 

1985年北韩作为板门店会谈设施竣工的统一阁是跟南韩地区和平之家相对称的概念,是建筑面积为460坪的地下一层、地上一层的建筑物。自19925月开始用作北韩南北联络事务所,之后在板门店北韩地区举办的主要南北会谈或接触的大部分在此举行。当时,在统一阁设置的北韩南北联络事务所共有5~6名职员常驻在此,通过两条直拨电话,与南韩执行联络业务。统一阁自板门阁往西北方向100米距离,肉眼看时模糊不清。

 

● 72-hour bridge 
● 72小时桥

Since the ax-brutality incident in 1976, the ‘Bridge of No Return’ was closed and security within Panmunjeom changed from joint security to divided guardianship. North Korea’s access point to Panmunjeom was through the Bridge of No Return, but after its closure, it was difficult for them to use. Hence, a concrete bridge was built northwards of the Sacheon River, behind Tongilgak, out of urgency. The UNC named this bridge ‘72-hour Bridge’ because it took 72 hours to construct.

1976年发生8.18斧头事件之后,不归桥就封闭起来,板门店内的警备由双方共同负责的共同警备,转变为各自警备。北韩在这段期间通过不归桥进出板门店,但该桥封闭之后就不容易进出共同警备区。由此急忙在统一阁后面的砂川江北侧新建了混凝土桥梁。建设该桥耗时72小时,联合国司令部给这座桥起了绰号叫‘72小时桥

 

 

Published in
November 11, 2015

Modified in
December 3, 2016

 

source

  • 『Panmunjeom Report』 (2003), Jang Seung-jae, Life and dreams

  • 『Past that was left for the future, DMZ』 (2010) Hahm Gwang-bok, Education Center for Unification, Ministry of Unification

  • Education Center for Unification, Ministry of Unification (www.uniedu.go.kr)

  • Special office for Inter-Korean Dialogue, Ministry of Unification (dialogue.unikorea.go.kr)

  • National Intelligence Service (www.nis.go.kr)

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