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DMZ The Land of Peace and Life

Historical background


Paused for a moment, without broken hands of a clock


时针没有发生故障,仅仅是暂停而已 

  

 

Everywhere, time passes equally. What we have left at the DMZ is not simply scars from the war. We need to turn back time to where dreams become lies, so we can look towards the day of unification.


时间在任何地方都很公平地流逝。我们留在DMZ的不可能仅仅是战争的伤痕。埋藏着没有实现的统一之梦的地方,我们应该把停止的历史时针重新转动。面向统一的那一天,充满有力地转动!

 

 

<SLL barbed-wire fence> Photo by Kim Chang-hwan(Kangwon University)

<SLL barbed-wire fence> Photo by Kim Chang-hwan(Kangwon University) 

 

 

 

 

The start of division, 38th Parallel North


分裂的开始,北纬38˚线

 

 

Korea’s dream to be free from Japan became a reality on August 15th1945, when Japan surrendered during World War II, however the joy of freedom didn’t last long. The existing global situation, which was undergoing reform during World War II, was too intense for our people to fight for a sovereign state.

 

随着1945年8月15日,日本在第二次世界大战宣布无条件投降,韩国也迎来了梦寐以求的解放。但是,快乐并没有长久。想要用我们民族力量实现完整的独立国家时,所面临的第二次世界大战之后开始重新洗牌的世界情势的潮流太过强大。 

 

The ‘38th Parallel’ was a temporary line for division of labor within the military operation, to solve Japan’s issues of surrender and disarmament. To solve postwar period problems, military administration was established by the Soviet Union for the North 38th Parallel, and administration for the South by the USA – however the Soviet Union’s thoughts were different. Their goal was to establish a Communist regime at the Korean Peninsula. Strong points which are railroads and roads were built and machine guns were available in excess around the 38th Parallel. Barriers between the North and South started to appear, in turn blocking main railways and roads. After four months of the Soviet Union’s military administration, Communism had been implemented in the North of the 38th Parallel, with Kim Il-sung as leader.

 

‘38˚线’本来是为了解决日本的投降与解除武装问题时分担军事作战业务,暂时性设定的行政上的一条线。38˚线以北由苏联,以南由美国各实施军政,解决战后处理问题。但是,苏联的想法却不同。想要在韩半岛树立共产政权的苏联,在38˚线各处构建阵地并配置机枪,掐断主要铁道与道路等,开始在南北之间筑起了墙壁。结果,苏联实施军政大约四个月时,在38˚线以北以金日成为首脑的共产体制开始扎根。

 

 

  • <members of the ‘Committee of North Korea’ established by the Soviet Union, nominating Kim Il-sung> Photo by NAK

    <members of the ‘Committee of North Korea’ established by the Soviet Union, nominating Kim Il-sung> Photo by NAK

  • <August 15th 1948, the appointment of first president Rhee Syngman> Photo by_NAK

    <August 15th1948, the appointment of first president Rhee Syngman> Photo by_NAK

 

  

The South of 38th Parallel in those days was without centered politics because the US military government didn’t recognize the existence of Korea’s provisional government, however the opinion amongst the public of South Korea favored a sovereign state over a conjoined government. This opinion strengthened, subsequent to the Cold War, which threatened the authority of the USA to prevent the Soviet Union from monopolizing the Korean Peninsula. In conclusion, a temporary committee of the UN was responsible for the election of a self-governing regime in South Korea. The 38th Parallel became a boundary line and the ROK adopted a democratic government in the South (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea). The chance to build a unified nation after liberation, disappeared, separating the people and the country.

 

当时的38˚线以南,美军政不承认大韩民国临时政府的存在,所以处于没有政治核心的状态。但是,随着世界情势转为冷战,美国在防止苏联独占韩半岛的危机感增大,而认为在南韩也不可避免地树立单独政府而不是统一政府的意见也增大。结果,组建了联合国韩国临时委员团,并实现了南韩的总选与单独政府树立。如此,以38˚线为分界,在南韩组建了大韩民国民主政府,而北韩组建了朝鲜民主主义人民共和国。随着解放,建立统一国家的机会消失,民族与国土的分裂却固定下来。

  

  

■ The background of division

 

The background of division 

 

 

 

 

The outbreak of the Korean War, an unforgettable tragedy


无法遗忘的悲剧,爆发6.25战争

  

  

On June 25th1950, supported by the Soviet Union, North Korea armed with the newest weapons, impeded the 38th Parallel and invaded South Korea. This was a tragic moment in history - there was a time when Korea fought in unity, as a nation to defeat the Japanese Empire, but instead aimed to annihilate each other. This was the outbreak of the Korean War. The U.N. Security Council declared North Korea’s armed attack as an ‘act of aggression’ and appealed support from neighboring countries. Meanwhile, command authorities were given to the United States for UN military activities in the Korean Peninsula. North Korea’s force in the initial phase was fearful. Seoul collapsed in four days and the front line expanded to Nakdonggang River in the Middle of September. The war strategy changed when the Battle of Incheon succeeded on September 15th1950. The UN forces entered Seoul on Sep 26th, regaining it on the 28th.

 

1950年6月25日,在苏联的支援下以最新武器武装的北韩跨过38˚线南侵。仅仅五年前一起对抗日本帝国主义并肩作战的同一个民族,互相之间兵戎相见,酿出悲剧的第一步,就是6.25战争的开始。联合国安全保障理事会将北韩的武力攻击宣布为‘侵略行为’,号召会员国支持的同时,为了联合国在韩半岛的军事活动,委任美国执行最高指挥权。北韩的初期气势非常可怕。仅仅三天攻陷首尔,9月中旬将战线扩大到洛东江。战况逆转的开始是在1950年9月15日成功的仁川登陆作战。登陆仁川的联合国军于9月26日进入首尔,于9月28日完全收复首尔。 

 

When Nation’s force and UN forces crossed over the 38th Parallel towards the North, citizens of South Korea expected unification, however the US thoughts were different. They were concerned that the Soviet Union and the Communist Chinese army would intervene, fearful of the Korean War turning into a combat between powerful nations. The war was ongoing, but our ground forces and air forces were prohibited access over the border into land occupied by the Soviet Union and Chinese. The Communist Chinese army entered the war using a human-wave strategy, which brought the war into a deadlock, leaving the 38th Parallel indeterminate.

 

韩国军与联合国军跨过38˚线向北挺进,而我们的国民再次期待了统一。但是,美国的想法却不是这样。美国开始有了苦恼,就是担心苏联与中共介入战争的危险。美国担忧6.25战争扩大而成为列强之间的全面战争。战争在继续,但我方陆军与空军被禁止跨过苏联或中共的国境。这是为了不想刺激苏联与中共。但结果,依赖人海战术的中共参战,而战争以38˚线附近陷入了胶着状态。

 

 

  • <US Marines confronting North Korean Army> Photo by_NAK

    <US Marines confronting North Korean Army> Photo by_NAK

  • <The welcoming rally for nation’s forces entering Pyeongyang> Photo by_NAK

    <The welcoming rally for nation’s forces entering Pyeongyang> Photo by_NAK

 

 

 

 

Ceasefire negotiations, dreams of uniting fade


休战会谈,而遥远的统一之梦

  

  

‘Maintain the present state near the 38th parallel’ was a restricted war policy initiated by the US. This policy showed indications of a war extension, which brought Malik J, the Soviet Union and UN representatives to recommend ceasefire mid speech at a meeting on June 23rd 1951. Progress towards unification expands northwards as our government opposes ceasefire, however ceasefire negotiations went ahead in Kaesong on July 10th1951. Until the conclusive ceasefire agreement was held on July 27th1953, it was merely the beginning of an ongoing battle between the opposing sides. In the beginning, negotiations progressed smoothly, but inevitably issues arose. Fixing the MDL between both armies caused conflict of interest. The US Army already advanced over the 38th Parallel and insisted to set the MDL alongside both armies’ line of contact, but the Red Army insisted to return the 38th Parallel to the original state. Talks were suspended and the war became intense again. About two months later when ceasefire negotiations resumed at Panmunjeom, the Red Army accepted the UN forces’ opinion and the MDL dispute was resolved.

 

随着美国在38˚线附近维持现状的受限制的战争方针,战争看似要变得长期化,由此苏联在联合国的代表马利克(Malik.J.)于1951年6月23日在总会演讲建议休战。正在推行征北统一的我国政府虽然反对休战,但是最终还是在1951年7月10日在开城举行了第一次休战会谈。自此开始了1953年7月27日最终停战协定签署为止,持续两年多的枯燥的攻防战。刚开始,会谈进行得比较圆满,但很快遇到了问题。就是在决定双方军队的军事分界线时发生了问题。已经跨过38˚线向北挺进的美军主张按照双方军队的战线为准决定,而共产军方则坚持恢复38˚线。会谈被中断,而战斗再次变得激烈。大约两个月之后,在板门店再次开展休战会谈时,共产军方接受了联合国军方的主张,而军事分界线问题暂时得到决定。

 

 

  • <Image of ceasefire talk> Photo by NAK

    <Image of ceasefire talk> Photo by NAK

  • <1951, opposing ceasefire citizen rally day> Photo by NAK

    <1951, opposing ceasefire citizen rally day> Photo by NAK

 

 

Soon after, another disagreement arose, this time concerning the repatriation of prisoners of war. Conflicting opinions became intense, which resulted in the suspension of further negotiations. Our government’s position to oppose ceasefire remained strong. The war was already at a loss of many lives and assets couldn’t be separated. An anti-ceasefire protest continued and President Rhee also opposed an armistice. Repeated battles and intensive attacks on the line of defense were consequences to difference in opinion, leading to an agreement of ceasefire. That’s how 3years of an ongoing war ended, and peace, which wasn’t a reality, was assumed in the Korean Peninsula.

 

但是,另一个问题又粉墨登场了。那就是俘虏遣送问题。针对俘虏的强制遣送还是自由遣送,产生了深刻的意见对立,而会谈再次中断。反对休战的我国政府立场也强硬。在已经失去很多性命与财产的战争,无法以‘分裂’来结束。继续着反对休战的示威,而李承晚总统也明确表示了反对休战的立场,但是反复着一进一退的战斗也继续,且对韩国军防御线的集中攻击之下,最终同意了休战。就这样,长达三年多的战争结束,韩半岛也迎来了似是而非的和平。

  

  

■ Nations status who sent combat forces into Korea


    6.25参战国现况-战斗部队派遣国

 

Country

国家名称

Man-days

参战人日(名)

Country

国家名称

Man-days

参战人日(名)

USA

美国

1,789,000 

Turkey

土耳其

14,963 

UK

英国 

56,000 

Thailand

泰国

6,326 

Australia

奥地利

8,407 

Greece

希腊

4,992 

Netherland

荷兰

5,322 

South Africa

南非共和国

826 

Canada

加拿大

25,687 

Belgium

比利时

3,498 

New Zealand

新西兰

3,794 

Luxemburg

卢森堡

83 

France

法国

3,421 

Colombia

哥伦比亚

5,100 

Philippines

菲律宾

7,420 

Ethiopia

埃塞俄比亚

3,518 

Total

总计

 1,938,330

※ Source: Korean War 60years commemoration business connection 

※ 资料来源:6.25战争60周年纪念事业委员会 

  

  

■ Nations status who provided medical aid and facilities support


   6.25参战国现况-医疗支援与设施派遣国

 

Country

国家名称

Man-days

参战人日(名)

Supporting Units and Facilities 

支援部队与设施

Sweden

瑞典

1,124 

The Red Cross hospital

红十字医院 

India

印度

627 

The 60th field hospital

第60野战医院 

Denmark

丹麦

630 

A hospital ship

医院船 

Norway

挪威

623 

Mobile surgical hospital

移动外科医院 

Italy

意大利

128 

The 68th Red Cross hospital

第68红十字医院 

총계 

总计

3,132 

- 

  

  

■  Human Injuries

 

 

Injuries in the ROK armed forces and UN forces

 

North and South civilian loss

※ Source: Korean War 60years commemoration business connection 

※ 资料来源:6.25战争60周年纪念事业委员会 

  

  

 

 

Bury the pain and sow seeds of hope


埋藏痛苦,撒播希望种子

 

 

Three years of war and two years of tedious ceasefire negotiations concluded with the signing of eighteen documents that were prepared by the UN forces and the Red Army forces on July 27th1953. Documents for the ceasefire agreement were written in Korean, English and Chinese. These documents contained contents about the MDL, DMZ and the liberation of the prisoners’ of war. Our mountains and fields sharing the same sky were divided due to documents containing content regarding the separation of the Korean Peninsula. A steady wall of separation now stands in front of us. 

 

继续三年多的战争和两年期间萎靡不振的休战会谈随着在1953年7月27日,联合国军方与共产军方各自签署提前准备的18个文件而结束。用韩国语、英语、汉语制定的这些文件是记录关于军事分界线、非武装地带、战争俘虏的处理问题等内容的停战协定书。如何将韩半岛以南北分裂的每个细节,按照指定的该文件,将我们同在一个天空下的山野硬是分成两半。而且,比战争之前更加坚固的分裂之墙竖立在我们的面前。

 

  • <Panmunjeom’s ceasefire meeting location on the day the ceasefire agreement was signed> Photo by NAK

    <Panmunjeom’s ceasefire meeting location on the day the ceasefire agreement was signed> Photo by NAK 

  • <The chief delegates of both sides, Namil from the North and admiral Joy from the US> Photo by NAK

    <The chief delegates of both sides, Namil from the North and admiral Joy from the US> Photo by NAK

 

 

An extensive amount of time was taken to reach the realization that a river flows, birds fly high, and animals roam on the land that exists across the barbed-wire fence. Time passes by as we march towards the future with continual change and development. The military tension is still rife, but we cannot leave the DMZ as the familiar ‘unreachable land’. A concerted effort is required to forma unity once again, one can only hope such a time will arise somewhere within this land.

 

在铁丝网对面、无法去的地方,草木之间流淌着河水,小鸟自由飞来飞去,动物也尽情玩耍,在我们悟到这些美景为止,经过了很多时间。但是,时间依然流逝,历史也在不断地变化与发展中走向未来。虽然是依然萦绕着军事上的紧张,但我们也不能一直使DMZ成为‘不能去的地方’。我们应该为了让这片土地的某个地方再次升起统一的希望,不知何时让南北分裂的山野重新合二为一而不断努力。

 

 

Published in
December 1, 2014

Modified in
December 3, 2016

 

  

source

  • 『Past that was left for the future, DMZ』 (2010) HahmGwang-bok, Education Center for Unification, Ministry of Unification

  • 『Korean war (the first)』, 1995, National Defense Research

  • 『For peace and life as well as prosperity ‘DMZ 60TH anniversary’』 (2013), The KangwonIlbo

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